Functionality of Soy Ingredients
The functional properties of whole soy ingredients in baked foods are determined by the amount of heat used in the processing of the soy, and also by the types and quantities of protein and oil contained in the soybean. Whole soy ingredients, containing from 40-55% protein and between 8 and 25% oil, generally deliver the following functional properties in baked goods:
Dough Conditioning: Uncooked soy ingredients (called “enzyme active”) contain high levels of the enzyme lipoxygenase. In white breads and buns, lipoxygenase strengthens the gluten matrix, improving dough machinability and mixing tolerance. Compared with other dough conditioning systems, enzyme active full fat soy flour is very cost-effective, results in a cleaner label, and is very simple to use (0.5% inclusion rate, wheat flour basis). In addition to strengthening the dough, the lipoxygenase also bleaches the pigments in the wheat flour, resulting in a whitening of the crumb.
Emulsification: A portion of the oil in soy is lecithin, a very common emulsifier in baked products. When heat is applied to whole soy during processing, the enzymes are inactivated and the oils are stabilized, resulting in an extended shelf life ingredient that delivers emulsification and water-binding properties at 2.5%-5.0% inclusion rate (wheat flour basis) in sweet baked products. Roasted full fat soy flour (40% protein, 24% oil) is commonly used in deep fried applications such as cake donuts to deliver excellent mouth-feel and to restrict the up-take of oil into the batter during frying. This same functionality can be applied to pie crusts and breadings.
Water binding: Whole soy ingredients are very hydrophilic—they can absorb approximately their own weight in water. A general rule of thumb is for every kg of whole soy incorporated into a batter or dough, a baker should incorporate an additional kg of water. Because the soy is able to bind this extra water, the result is a softer bite out of the oven, a slowing of the rate of staling, and a higher yield per batch. Low fat soy ingredients (50% protein, 8% oil) offer the strongest water binding and absorption of all whole soy ingredients, due to the higher protein level.
Texture enhancement: By carefully controlling the milling and sifting stages, whole soy ingredients can be made in a variety of finished particle sizes to meet application needs. From the very coarse full fat soy grits or meal, to a nearly soluble fine grind full fat flour, these ingredients all contribute to the textural properties of hearth breads, bars, cookies, muffins, and grain-based beverages.
The following chart summarizes the different functional properties of our soy ingredients:
|Functionality||Ingredients||How It Works||Benefits|
|Gluten Strengthening||EASY100||The active enzyme lipoxygenase strengthens the gluten matrix in bread dough||Cleaner label dough conditioner
Improve product quality
Improves dough machinability, strength and mixing tolerance
|EASY100||The active enzyme lipoxygenase bleaches the wheat pigments in white pan breads||Natural, clean label bleaching agent at 0.5% wheat flour basis
Very cost-effective compared with other dough conditioner systems
|Emulsification||ROSY100||Lecithin in soy oil is a strong emulsifier and water binder||Clean label, natural emulsifier
Extend dough yield
Moister mouth feel
Shelf life extension
Reduce or eliminate lecithin or other fats
|Resisting Fat Absorption||ROSY100||Protein forms a ‘crust’ around the outside of deep fat fried products (cake donuts, breadings), resulting in a physical barrier to fat absorption||Better mouth-feel
Nice browning effect
|ROSY100||Roasted full fat flour absorbs approximately 100% of its weight.||Extend dough yield
Rule of thumb is, for every kg of ROSY added to a batter or dough, add an equal amount of water
|Use roasted grits or meal as a topping or inclusion in bars, muffins, cookies||Excellent flavor
Add 40 to 50% protein
Provides eye appeal as inclusion or topping
Include meal as part of breading system